Chimneyless Houses

central hearth

“Early shelters were built of availale materials. Hides spread over poles or the bones and tusks of mammoths formed a type widely used. Stone and clay were common early building materials. Usually there was only a single room, with the fire located at the center of the living area. In many parts of the world this pattern changed little from the earlies times right up to the present. Smoke escaped from such dwellings as it could, through the low door or a smoke hole in the roof… The Scots developed a special word, snighe, for rain that worked its way through the roof sods and dripped down black with soot upon the people below.” [Read more…]

Crimean Ovens

“Starting in 1861, the wintertime Union field tent hospitals of the U.S. Civil War often used subterranean heating systems known as Crimean Ovens. The system under discussion was basically a firebox, or oven, on the outside of the tent, with a shallow, brick-lined, sheet-metal-covered trough running down the center of the tent’s interior, and ending in a chimney on the opposite exterior side of the tent. The tents were placed on ground with slight inclines, allowing the hot air to naturally rise and escape out the flue.”

crimean oven

“Dr. Charles Tripler, Surgeon and Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, writes in a letter of November 1861 the following description of “a modification of the Crimean Oven”, devised and put into operation by Surgeon McRuer, the surgeon of General Sedgewick’s Eighth Brigade:

A trench 1 foot wide and 20 inches deep to be dug through the center and length of each tent, to be continued for 3 or 4 feet farther, terminating at one end in a covered oven fire-place and at the other in a chimney. By this arrangement the fire-place and chimney are both on the outside of the tent; the fire-place is made about 2 feet wide and arching; its area gradually lessening until it terminates in a throat at the commencement of the straight trench. This part is covered with brick or stone, laid in mortar or cement; the long trench to be covered with sheet-iron in the same manner. The opposite end to the fire-place terminates in a chimney 6 or 8 feet high; the front of the fire-place to be fitted with a tight movable sheet-iron cover, in which an opening is to be made, with a sliding cover to act as a blower.

crimean oven 2By this contrivance a perfect draught may be obtained, and use more cold air admitted within the furnace than just sufficient to consume the wood and generate the amount of heat required, which not only radiates from the exposed surface of the iron plates, but is conducted throughout the ground floor of the tent so as to keep it both warm and dry, making a board floor entirely unnecessary, thereby avoiding the dampness and filth, which unavoidably accumulates in such places.

All noise, smoke, and dust, attendant upon building the fires within the tent are avoided; there are no currents of cold air, and the heat is so equally diffused, that no difference can be perceived between the temperature of each end or side of the tent.”

Read more: 1 / 2 / 3.

Heat Your Desk, Not Your Office

heated desk“Bloooms introduces a desk with a heated top, which is bound to enhance the comfort level of people who spend much time working behind a desk.

Research by the Dutch research institute TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) shows that contact heating through the wrists is the most efficient way to warm the body — one can turn down the heater 1 to 4 degrees C°. If the undersides of the wrists are warm, the whole body will be warm. By working at a computer, for example, using the mouse, or writing, the wrists are placed on the work top.

The heating elements are integrated into the table top. This is possible, because Bloooms exclusively works with bamboo, which is eminently suitable to apply heating. It’s a stable material, that conserves its shape and properties when heated. A sensor triggers the heating the moment someone sits down at the desk, and turns it off when no one is sitting at the desk. The heating can be individually adjusted, and is therefore excellently suited to be used in spaces where there are several people at work.”

Bloooms heated desk. The company is working on a new version of their heated desk, which can be controlled by a laptop and will be ready in a few months. Related: Several readers have sent us a link to a prototype of a thermoelectric bracelet. It monitors air and skin temperature, and sends tailored pulses of hot or cold waveforms to the wrist to help maintain thermal comfort. Heat the individual, not the building.

Related articles:

Rocket Stove Heating

rocket stove in estonia

A rocket stove is not quite as efficient and clean-burning as a masonry heater, but it is much more DIY-friendly to build. The idea is that the configuration allows excess oxygen to increase the burn temperature of the fire. Hotter temperature means you want to store the heat energy into a high thermal mass material. Lots of great links at I fucking love rocket stoves.

Build a Solar Thermal Direct-Air Heater for $200

solar thermal direct air heater

“The town I live in is located near the Alberta-BC border, about 100 miles north of the US Canada border. Winters here are long and cold, but many days are crystal clear and sunny.”

“Our tool shed has a south-facing wall which was ideal to mount a solar thermal direct-air collector panel. The collector panel exterior dimensions are 48” high x 49.5” wide. Total budget: $200.00 Result: 16 sq ft harvest up to 6 kWh/day.”

Build a Solar-Thermal Direct-Air Heater (PDF). Introduction (and another project) here.

Micro Heaters

Microheaters“In June of 2010 I moved to a place in Montana with only electric heat. By myself. In the past few winters I had conducted experiments in cutting the amount of energy I needed to stay warm, with a focus on heating myself instead of heating the whole house.”

“I had a lot of motivators here, but the primary motivator was the greenwashing being done around fluorescent light bulbs. My power company sent me literature telling me that I should replace all of my incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent light bulbs to save energy and money. Based on my lighting usage, the most I could possibly save is $5 per year. Yet, with changing my heating habits, I think I have proven that I can save $500 per year.”

Read more: Micro heaters cut 87% off my electric heat bill. Via Treehugger. Previously: Insulation: first the body, then the home.